Understanding Science – Technology, Philosophy, Terms, Differences, Traits, Processes, Sources, Theories, Experts

Understanding Science – Technology, Philosophy, Terms, Differences, Traits, Processes, Sources, Theories, Experts

Understanding Science – Technology, Philosophy, Terms, Differences, Features, Processes, Sources, Theories, Experts: It is a testable and reliable search for knowledge, conducted systematically according to regular stages and based on certain principles and procedures while technology is the application of scientific discoveries to solve practical problems.

Understanding Science

Science, science, science are all consciously realized efforts to discover, investigate and improve the understanding of humans in all angles of reality in human nature. This point of view is given a limit in order for the formulations to be definitive. The understanding of science provides certainty about knowledge by limiting the scope of its view, as well as a certainty of science obtained from its limitations.

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Science is not only a knowledge, but it includes a set of knowledge based on agreed theories and can be systemically tested in various ways followed in the form of certain sciences. Viewed in terms of philosophy, science exists because man has the effort to think very far about the knowledge he has. Science is the result of epistemology.

Psychological science can only foresee human behavior or behavior if the scope of its view has limits from a general point of view of definite human behavior. But natural science will become certain if already his view is limited into material (material only).

In relation to this example, psychology answers whether a young woman is suitable to be a nurse, natural sciences answer a question, what is the distance of the sun from the earth.

Understanding Science And Technology

Science according to Horton, P, B., and Chester L, H is a testable and reliable search for knowledge, conducted systematically according to regular stages and based on certain principles and procedures while technology is the application of scientific discoveries to solve practical problems.

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Science basically has three support components of the body of knowledge arranged as follows:

  • Ontology, can be interpreted as the nature of what is reviewed by knowledge, so that clearly the scope of the form that becomes the object of its study, in other words ontology is the formal object of a knowledge
  • Epistemologically, it can be interpreted as a way of how knowledge materials are obtained and structured into a body of knowledge
  • Axological, it is the principle of using science or the function of science.

Technology, technology is derived from the Greek, namely tekne, which works, and logos, meaning a study of equipment, procedures and methods used in various branches of the industry. Here is the definition of technology according to experts:

  • According to Prayitno in Ilyas (2001), technology is an entire device of ideas, methods, techniques of material objects used in certain times and places as well as to meet human needs
  • According to Mardikanto (1993), technology is a new behavior of products, information and practices that has not been widely known, accepted and used or applied by some citizens in a particular location in order to encourage the change of individuals and or all concerned citizens.
  • According to Jaques Ellul, technology is "an entire method that rationally leads and characterizes efficiency in every area of human activity". The general understanding of technology is:
  • processes that increase value added
  • products used and produced to facilitate and improve performance
  • The structure or system in which the process and the product is shot and used.

In conclusion, science has fixed theories or formulas, and technology is the practice or applied science of theories derived from science. So science and technology have a relationship with each other. If there was no science, technology wouldn't exist.

Philosophy of Science

To understand the understanding of the philosophy of science, it will be discussed first the understanding of philosophy in the sense of its terminology. The definition of philosophy in accordance with the terminology is:

  • Philosophy is a speculative attempt to present a complete, systemic view of all realities.
  • Philosophy is an attempt to illustrate the essence of final and basic and tangible reality.
  • Philosophy is to determine the limits and reach of knowledge: its source, its in fact, its validity, and its value.
  • Philosophy is a critical investigation of the assertions and statements made by various fields of knowledge.
  • Philosophy is to try to help see what we are saying and to say what we see.

 

Thus, the philosophical understanding above terminology varies greatly in both the expression and the pressure point. Even Mohammad Hatta is an Indonesian philosopher, and Langeveld says that the definition of philosophy does not need to be given because everyone has their own pressure point in the definition.

This is understandable, because the philosophical essence is contained in the discussion rather than the definition. But the definition of philosophy to be used as an initial benchmark is necessary, because to give the direction and scope of the objects discussed, especially related to the philosophy of science.

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Terms of Science

It's very different from science, science is a science that specifically learns about the causes of something happening and why?. There are some scientific conditions that can be referred to as science. The scientific nature of the condition of science is much influenced by natural sciences that already exist first.

  • Objective. The object of study must exist in the existing science of a group of problems of the same nature, visible from the outside as well as its shape from within it. The object also exists, or may also exist because it still has to be tested for its existence. In terms of examining an object, what is sought is truth, which is the adjustment between to know and the object, so that it can be called objective truth; based on the research subject or the supporting subject of the study.
  • Methodical. Methodical comes from the Greek "Metodos" which means: way, way. Methodical means a specific method used and usually refers to a scientific method. Efforts have been made to minimize all possibilities that occur in the event that it deviates from seeking the truth. The risk that must be ed is to ensure the certainty of the truth.
  • Systematic. In his experience of trying to explain and know an object, science must be decomposed and described in an absurd (logical) and orderly relationship in order to form a system that has integrity, is thorough, integrated in terms of meaning, and can present a series of causes concerning its objectives. Knowledge that can be systematically organized is a series of causes resulting from the third condition of science.
  • Universal. A truth that will be achieved is a universal truth that is not of a certain (general) nature. Example: Social science realizes that the general content of nature is different from the human action. Therefore in order to reach a level that is unversal in social sciences, there must be context and certain also. For example: All triangles are 180º angles. Therefore universal is the fourth requirement of science.

 

Understanding Science According to Experts

Below is the understanding of science according to the experts:

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  • 19 REVIEWS , 13FOLLOWERS

 

Knowledge that has been systematically compiled and generally applicable.

  • THOMAS KUHN

 

A set of activities that gain or produce many discoveries, either in the form of development or rejection.

  • VAN PUERSEN

 

Organized knowledge, with methods and systems trying to find fixed relationships among the symptoms.

  • Dr. MAURICE BUCAILLE

 

The key to being able to express things, both over a short period of time and a long period of time.

  • NS. ASMADI

 

Science is the process of knowing through systematic investigation and a dense and controlled set of knowledge (scientific methods).

  • CHARLES SINGER

 

Science is the process that makes knowledge. Science is (a process that makes knowledge)

  • M. IZUDDIN TAUFIQ

 

Science is the search for information or data through observation, experimentation and assessment, for the purpose of basic foundation, establishing its essence, or origin.

  • POESPOPRODJO

 

Science is a continuous process of improving (continuous) which includes the development of empirical tests and theories.

  • POPPER

 

Science is fixed in its entirety and may only be reorganized.

  • DR. H. M. GADE

 

Science is philosophy. i.e. the result of thinking about the possible limits of human knowledge.

  • FRANCIS BACON

 

Science is the only fact that can be an object of knowledge and the only valid knowledge.

  • GOLDSTEIN

 

Science is a way of looking at the world, changing and understanding it. In terms of the creativity of science, science is described as a system of thinking that involves a series of imaginative and creative activities in an effort to find the truth.

  • 19REVIEWS , 10FOLLOWERS

 

Science in language means "fact or circumstances" is often taken and knowing in the meaning of knowledge contrasts with belief and intuition.

The Difference between Science and Science

There are several definitions of science, among them:

  • Science is the mastery of the human environment. This definition is not accepted because it interferes with science and technology.
  • Science is a study of the material world. This definition is unacceptable because science is not limited to material things.
  • Science is the experimental definition. This definition is unacceptable because science is not only experimental results/methods, but also observations, interviews. Or it could be said that this definition does not provide a strong strap to unite the results of experiments and observations (Ziman J. in Qadir C.A., 1995).
  • Science can come to the truth through the logical conclusion of empirical observation.

 

The definition of using induction methods is to build common principles based on various observations. This definition provides a hypothetical place, as a prediction of future observations. This definition also recognizes the importance of speculative or metaphysical thinking as long as there is conformity with the observations. However, this definition is not black or white. This definition does not place on observational testing with further research.

The truth inferred from empirical observations based solely on logical conclusions means based solely on common sense conclusions. If the conclusion is only common sense, even if it is based on empirical observations, it cannot yet be said as science but still on the level of knowledge.

Science is not the result of logical conclusions from observations, but it must be a conceptual framework or theory that provides a place for critical assessment and testing by other experts in the same field, thus universally accepted. This means there is agreement among experts on conceptual frameworks that have been critically reviewed and tested or have been researched into experiments on the conceptual framework.

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Features of Science

Science or scientific knowledge according to The Liang Gie (1987) (in Surajiyo, 2010) has five main characteristics including:

  • Empirically, that knowledge is gained based on observation and experimentation.
  • Systematically, various information and data arranged as a knowledge group have a dependency and regular relationship;
  • Objectively, science means that knowledge is free from individual prejudices and personal favors;
  • Analytically, scientific knowledge seeks to distinguish the subject matter from detailed sections to understand the various traits, relationships, and roles of those parts;
  • Verifiative, can be checked the truth by anyone as well.

 

Philosophy of Science

To understand the understanding of the philosophy of science, it will be discussed first the understanding of philosophy in the sense of its terminology. The definition of philosophy in accordance with the terminology is:

  • Philosophy is a speculative attempt to present a complete, systemic view of all realities.
  • Philosophy is an attempt to illustrate the essence of final and basic and tangible reality.
  • Philosophy is to determine the limits and reach of knowledge: its source, its in fact, its validity, and its value.
  • Philosophy is a critical investigation of the assertions and statements made by various fields of knowledge.
  • Philosophy is to try to help see what we are saying and to say what we see.

 

Thus, the philosophical understanding above terminology varies greatly in both the expression and the pressure point. Even Mohammad Hatta is an Indonesian philosopher, and Langeveld says that the definition of philosophy does not need to be given because everyone has their own pressure point in the definition.

This is understandable, because the philosophical essence is contained in the discussion rather than the definition. But the definition of philosophy to be the initial benchmark is necessary, because to give direction and scope of the objects discussed, especially related to the philosophy of science.

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Philosophy and Philosophy of Science

The similarities between Philosophy and Science are:

  • Both are looking for the best formula, investigating the object to its roots.
  • Both give an understanding of the relationship or coherentness that exists between the events experienced, and show the reasons.
  • Both are about to provide synthesis, which is a view that is reviewed.
  • Both have methods and systems.
  • Both want to shed light on the full reality arising from human desire (objectivity), of more basic knowledge.

 

The difference between Philosophy and Science

While the differences between Philosophy and Science are:

  • The material object (field) of philosophical investigation is universal, i.e. everything that exists, whereas the material object of science is special and empirical.
  • The formal object of philosophy is non-fragmentary, for it seeks the understanding of everything that exists outside, profoundly, and fundamentally (to its very nature). While the science of formal objects is pregmentaris, specific, and intensive, it is also technical, meaning that the idea of human ideas holds unification with reality.
  • Philosophy is carried out in an atmosphere accentuating speculation, critical, and surveillance power. Meanwhile, science should be conducted research through a trial and error approach. Therefore, the value of science lies in pragmatic uses, while the usefulness of philosophy arises from its value.
  • Philosophy with further and deeper questions based on the experience of daily reality. While science is discursive, i.e. deciphering logically, which starts from not knowing to know.
  • Philosophy provides the latter explanation, which is absolute, and profound to the basis of the so-called nature. While science shows reasons that are not so profound or called secondary causes

 

The Process of The Formation of Science

The development of science as it is today does not take place suddenly, but rather occurs gradually, evolutively. Therefore, to understand the history of the development of science will inevitably have to do division or classification.

Periodically, because each period displays certain characteristics in the development of science. The development of thought theoretically always refers to Greek trump. Therefore, the periodization of the development of science here began in Greek civilization and ended in contemporary times.

  • Pre-Ancient Greece

 

In this day and age it is characterized by the ability of:

  • Know how in everyday life based on experience.
  • Knowledge based on that experience is accepted as fact with a receptive mind, information is still associated with magical powers.
  • The ability to find the alphabet and the system of natural numbers has exposed the development of human thought to the level of abstraction.
  • The ability to write, to count, to compose a calendar based on synesce to the results of abstraction is performed.
  • The ability to foresee an event on the basis of previous events that have occurred. (Rizal Muntazir, 1996)
  • Ancient Greek times

 

Ancient Greece was seen as the golden age of philosophy, because in this day and age people had the freedom to express their ideas or opinions. Greece at that time was considered a repository of science and philosophy, as the Greeks of the time no longer believed in mythologies. B

Greek geese also cannot accept experiences based on receptive attitudes, but rather foster an inquiring attitude. It is this attitude that is the forerunner of the growth of modern science. It was this critical attitude that made the Greeks appear as the most famous think-experts of all time. Some philosophers at the time were Thales, Phytagoras, Sokrates, Plato, Aristotle.

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  • Medieval Times

 

The Middle Ages were marked by the appearance of theologians in the field of science. Scientists today are almost all theologians, so scientific activity is related to religious activity. The motto that applies to science at this time is Ancilla Theologia or religious abdi. However, it must be acknowledged that many of the findings in the field of science are occurring at this time.

  • Renaissance times

 

The Renaissance was marked as an era of revival of free thought from religious dogmas. The Renaissance was a transitional period when Medieval culture began to transform into a modern culture. Man in this day and age is a man who yearns for free thought. Man wants to achieve progress on his own efforts, not based on divine intervention.

The inventions of modern science began in the Renaissance. The science that developed at this time is the field of astronomy. Notable figures such as Roger Bacon, Copernicus, Johannes Keppler, Galileo Galilei.

  • Modern times (17-19 AD)

 

Modern times are characterized by various scientific discoveries. The development of science in modern times has actually been pioneered since the Renaissance. Like Rene Descartes, tokoph is well known as the father of modern philosophy.

Rene Descartes is also an expert in science. His discovery in science must have been a coordinate system consisting of two straight lines X and Y in a flat field. Isaac Newton with his findings on gravitational theory. Charles Darwin with his theory struggle for life. J.J. Thompson with his findings.

  • Contemporary times (20th century onwards)

 

The twentieth-century physicist was Albert Einstein. He states that nature is infinite in size and infinite, but it also does not change the status of its totality or is static from time to time. Einstein believed in the eternity of matter. This means that the universe is eternal, or in other words does not acknowledge the creation of nature.

In addition to theories about physics, the theory of the universe, and others, this Contemporary Age is characterized by the discovery of various advanced technologies. Communication and information technology is among the rapidly evolving. Starting from computer discovery, various communication satellites, internet, and so on. Other fields of science are also progressing rapidly, so there are increasingly sharp science specialties.

Origin of Knowledge / Source of Knowledge

There are several opinions on the source of knowledge, among others:

  • Empirism, according to this tradition man acquires knowledge through experience (empereikos = experience). In this case there must be 3 things, namely who knows (the subject), who is known (object) and how to know (experience). Notable people: John Locke (1632 –1704), George Barkeley (1685 -1753) and David Hume.
  • Rationalism, this tradition states that reason is the basis of certainty and truth of knowledge, although it has not been supported by empirical facts. The characters were Rene Descartes (1596 –1650, Baruch Spinoza (1632 –1677) and Gottried Leibniz (1646 –1716).
  • With intuition, man acquires knowledge suddenly without going through a certain process of instinct. Henry Bergson considered intuition to be the result of the highest evolution of thought, but personal.
  • Revelation is knowledge sourced from God through his chosen servants to convey it (Prophet and Rosul). Through revelation or religion, man is taught about a number of knowledges both affordable and unreachable to man.

 

The theory of Science

There are two theories used to know the properties of Knowledge:

  • Realism, this theory has a realistic view of nature. Knowledge is the true picture of what exists in the real world.
  • Idealism, this theory explains that knowledge is subjective mental/psychological processes. Knowledge is a subjective depiction of something that exists in nature according to the opinion or vision of the person who experiences and knows it. The basic premise is a soul that has a central position in the universe.