The understanding of Taxon, Classification, Animal and Plant Levels is a unit level or also a group of living beings arranged that start at the highest level to the lowest level.
Definition of Taxon Level
The taxon level is the level of units or groups of living beings arranged that start at the highest to the lowest level. The sequence of taxon levels starts from the highest level to the lower level, namely:
- regnum (world) or kingdom (kingdom)
- divisio (division) or phylum (phylum)
- classis or order (nation)
- familia (kelurga or tribe)
- genus (surname)
- species (species or species)
- variety (race)
The higher the level of the taxon, the more members on the taxon, but the more differences in character between the taxon members. If, the lower the level on the taxon then also fewer taxon members, and also more similarities of the characteristics among the members of the taxon.
There are various classification systems of living things. This classification system evolved from a simple to a more modern system.
Artificial/ artificial system
A system that groups living things based on characteristic equations set by the researchers themselves, for example, the size, shape, and habitat of living things. Adherents of this system include Aristotle and Theophratus (370 BC).
Natural / natural system
A system that groups living things based on the similarity of external body structure (morphology) and internal body structure (anatomy) naturally. Adherents of this system, among them, Carolus Linnaeus (18th century). Linnaeus argues that each type of living being has a different form. Therefore, if a number of living beings have the same number of traits, then the living being is the same species. In this way, Linnaeus can get to know 10,000 types of plants and 4,000 types of animals.
Modern system (phylogenetics)
The system of classification of living beings is based on evolutionary kinship. Some of the parameters used in this classification are as follows:
- The similarities of body structure can be known externally and internally. Using biochemical comparison. For example, limulus polyphemus animals, used to be included in the crab group because of their rajungan-like shape, but after being biochemically analyzed their blood, it was shown that this animal was closer to a spider. Based on this evidence, Limulus was incorporated into the spider group.
- Based on modern genetics. Genes are also used to classify living things. The gene equation indicates kinship.
Taxon Level Classification
The levels in taxons in classification are as follows:
Regnum (World) or Kingdom (Kingdom)
Kingdom is the highest level of taxon with the largest number of members on the taxon. Organisms on the earth are grouped into 5 kingdoms, among others are as follows kingdom:
- Plantae (is a plant),
- fungi (mushrooms),
- . Monera (unicellular organism with no nucleus),
- Protista (eukaryotics that have a simple network).
Divisio (Division) or also Phylum (Phylum)
The phylum is used for animal taxons, while in the division it is used for plant taxons. Kingdom Animalia is divided into several phylums, including chordata phylum (having notokorda when embryo), phylum Echinodermata (thorn-skinned animal), and also phylum Platyherlminthes (flatworm). The name on the plant's division uses the sing -phyta. For example, kingdom Plantae which is divided into 3 (three) divisions are as follows:
- Bryophyta (moss plant),
- Ptheridophyta (nail plant)
- Spermatophyta (seeded plant).
Members on the taxon of each phylum or division are grouped again based on the equation of certain features. Class names on plants that use different sings, among others are as follows:
- edoneae (for closed-seeded plants),
- opsida (on moss),
- phyceae (on algae), and so on.
For example, the following:
a. Angiospermae division is divided into two classes, namely:
- Monocotyledone class
- dicotyledoneae class;
b. Bryophyta division is classified into 3 classes, namely as follows:
- Hepaticosida (liver moss),
- Anthocerotopsida (moss marks)
- Bryopsida (leaf moss)
c. Chrysophya phylum (golden algae) is grouped into 2 classes, namely as follows:
Order ( Nation)
Members of each class's taxon are regrouped into several orders based on a more specific equation of characteristics. The name of the order against the plant taxon is usually using the sing -ales. examples are as follows, the class dicotylesoneae which is divided is into several orders, namely as follows:
- order of Solanales,
- Asterales, and also
Members of each order are grouped again into families based on an equation of certain characteristics. The origin of the family word is from the Latin family. The name on the family of the plant is usually using the sing aceace. For example, the following are:
- solanaceace family,
- Asteraceae, and also
However, there are also those who do not use the sing-aceae, for example as follows:
- Compasitae (another name of Asteraceae) and
- Graminae (another name poaceace).
Members of the taxon of each family are then grouped again into several genera based on an equation of certain characteristics that are more specifically. The rules or procedures in writing the genus name, namely with uppercase letters in the first word and also italicized or underlined. examples are as follows,
The family Poaceae consists of the following genus:
- Zea (corn),
- Saccharum (sugar cane),
- Triticum (wheat),
- Oryza (grains).
Species are tiers at the most basic or lowest taxons. Members of the taxon of the species have the most characteristic similarities and also consist of organisms that if performed a marriage naturally it can produce a fertile offspring. The name of the species consists of 2 (two) words which are as follows;
- the word 1(first) leads to its genus name
- 2(second) words lead to the specific name
Variety or race
And in the organisms of one species can sometimes still be found very clear differences in traits, and also very special (varies) so that it is called a variety (cultivar) that is a breed. The term of the variety and also cultivars is used in plant species, while in the term of the breed is used in animal species. The variety can also be interpreted as botanically as well as agronomously.
In every plant diversity, botanists always face problems in determining the taxon level of the plant group faced. Taxon levels are very important because tampa has a taxon level, so the benefits of the classification system cannot be obtained. According to international agreements, the terms for referring to each taxon for the plant should not be changed until each term indicates a position or level in the hierarchy or shows its category in the classification system. In plant taxonomy the term used to mention a taxon at the same time reflects the position and how high the level is in the classification hierarchy.
Taxonomy is any type (unit) of taxonomy of any level or in other words a unit of grouping in classification. Taxons are distinguished in different levels, so they are in order to vary. There are 7 main taxon levels in a row from the bottom up, namely: species, genus, tribe, nation(order), class(class), division (divisio), and world (regnum).
In the classification system, the term taxon level is called category. Species are the basic category of taksonomic hirearchy, because species are bedstones in biological classifications, and of those species concepts of higher and lower classes are developed.
In plant taxonomy, a species as a unit is a true one in nature, and there have been many tumbuahn experts who have sought to explain what the species means and how its boundaries are. Turns out it wasn't an easy job. Until now, no expert has been able to put limits on that type of concept that can satisfy all parties. Some notions of species in the view of biologists include:
- Taxonomic species, populations consisting of individuals with the same morphological traits, and can be separated from other species by the absence of correlated cirri-morphological traits.
- Biological species, populations are united by the possibility of mating freely, and are separated or isolated from other species by reproductive hinderers.
- Genetic species, limiting species to a measure of genetic differences or distances between populations or groups of populations.
- Paleontological species, based on gene flow and reproductive isolation.
- A clarinetist species, a descendant of an organism population considered an ancestor that retains its identity from the offspring, and they have evolutionary tendencies and historic reality.
- Bioistematic species, reflecting a unit that reflects the diversity of reproductive kinship relationships beyond the restrictions granted by Linnaeus.
Many of the categories that have been compromised relate to the resulting units of biosystemic investigation that interpret the reproductive boundaries of the test, homogeneous and heterogeneous contonya. Homogeny is a species that is genetically and morphologically a species, all its members interfertil, heterogeneous is a species composed of a group of plants of the same lineage, when it itself produces popilation that is morphologically fixed, but when crossed can produce a fertile and viable type of offspring.
Categories under species
According to international agreements, in a type or species can be distinguished several consecutive categories called terms: child types (subspecies), varieties (varieties), child varieties (subvarietas), vorma (forma), and child forma (subforma). Child type is considered a variation of one of the specified species and is a morphological variation of a specified type, and is a morphological variation of a specified type, and is a morphological variation of a type that has its own geographic distribution area, not found together with other members of the population of the same kind.
Child type is a category that includes elements that have certain morphological, geographical, and ecological characteristics, which provide justification for being separated from the rest of the population in a type. Varieties are a category below the level of the type that is widely used in the world of agriculture. By taxonomy experts, varieties are contingenced as a morphological variant of a kind without associating with their distribution problems; have their own distribution area; together with other varieties of the same type occupy the same distribution area; different colors or habitus.
Forma is generally considered the lowest taxon or the least category. Usually forma is used to place variations in jeis that are not so important. These variations concern: crown color, fruit color, response to certain habitats, and so on. Into the forma can be inserted any variant that sometimes occurs in the population of a type regardless of the degree of deviation and consistency.
Categories under species
The above categories discussed are limited to several main categories only, namely: clan, tribe, nation, class, division, and world. A genus is a group of species whose similarity reveals a closer relationship to each other than those in other groups of species. A higher-level category is the tribe (familia). Each tribe can include one or more clans, and is usually easier to know because its wargan exhibits characteristics that give an indication of a close relationship. In general, tribes consist of members of the same ancestors, so they have monophyletic citizens. Tribes are categories whose size varies greatly, from very small to only one clan and only a few types, some of which are very large consisting of dozens of clans and hundreds of types or even larger ones.
One or more sukau can form a higher category that is the nation (order). As a unit larger than a tribe, a nation is an increasingly difficult category to identify as a natural unit, but as a classification unit it still shows the uniformity of certain traits that are often very characteristic for the whole nation. In this regard, the nation is often named according to the characteristics of all its citizens.
A higher category than the nation is classis. A class consists of a number of nations, and the arena is an even more difficult taxon to be seen as a natural unit. Although basically among the wargan is also found certain characteristics, but in addition to the two classes found in the plant group with a certain level of development, namely dichotil and monochotil, the peculiarities of the characteristics that are used as criteria for the determination of a class do not appear conspicuous. Plant groups such as bare seed plants (Gymnospermae), nail plants (Pteridophyta), and low-level plants (Bryophyta and Thalophyta), the criteria for class determination are not so clear that there are experts who do not distinguish the absence of classes in Gymnospermae.
The combination of classes that have similar properties is classified into divisions, all of which exhibit the same morphological or organ characteristics or have the same way of reproduction, as reflected in the names of the Spermatophyta division (seed plant), Thallophyta (talus plant), Schizophyta (self-splitting plant). The concept of the world (regnim) is used to designate the whole plant or the whole animal that is then referred to as the world of plants (regnum plantarum) and the animal world (regnum animale).
With the advancement of technology and knowledge, then introverted also a group of bodies that are mostly prokaryotics as living beings, such as viruses and ricketsia, coupled with the subjectivity of individuals, later came the ideas that living beings should not be distinguished in the world of plants and animal worlds only, but it was also proposed that the fungi and algae respectively be separated into separate creature worlds called fungi (regnum fungorum) and algae worlds (regnum algorum).
Taxon Levels In Animals
Taxon Levels in Plants
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